Thyroid hormones help control your metabolism. When the levels are too low, metabolism slows down. Symptoms can include feeling chilly, fatigued, getting constipation, feeling down, and gaining weight. When levels of thyroid hormone are low, it is called hypothyroidism. As estrogen decreases, so does your thyroid metabolism. If you are entering midlife and your menopause years, it is possible your thyroid will become less efficient which can worsen your menopause symptoms.
There are some important foods and nutrients that can help you feel better. By providing your body with proper nutrition—along with prescribed medications—you can help reduce your symptoms. Eating foods that nourish your thyroid early in your menopausal journey can also help prevent problems later.
What does your thyroid do?
Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland at the front of your neck that secretes thyroid hormones. These hormones control your metabolism (the way your body uses energy) and affect several processes throughout the body, including your breathing, heart rate, body temperature, and brain. When thyroid hormones are high, many systems speed up. When hormone levels are low, they slow down.
Thyroid hormones are very important during pregnancy and breastfeeding, not only for the mother's health but also for the developing baby. Thyroid hormones help with the proper development of babies' bones, brains, and nervous systems.
Low thyroid (hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's)
Low levels of thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism) is common. Nearly 1 in 20 Americans aged 12 or older experience underactive thyroid. Overactive thyroids, or hyperthyroidism, is much less common—affecting just 1 in 100 Americans. Thyroid problems occur most often in women, people over 60 years old, and those with a family history of thyroid issues.
The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto's disease. This is an autoimmune condition. It happens when the body's immune system—designed to fight off germs and infections—mistakenly attacks and destroys the body's own cells. People with other autoimmune disorders (celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, lupus, etc.) are more likely to develop Hashimoto's disease than those who do not have an autoimmune disease.
Other less common causes of hypothyroidism are inflammation, iodine deficiency, other diseases, and some medications. Symptoms of hypothyroidism: There are many symptoms of hypothyroidism.
Some common ones include:
· Fatigue and weakness (feeling unusually tired, having less energy)
· Weight gain
· Trouble tolerating cold (feeling chilly when others around you feel fine)
· Depression, difficulty concentrating, memory problems
· Joint and muscle pain
· Puffy face
· Dry or thinning skin, hair, and nails
· Heavy or irregular menstrual problems or fertility problems
· Slow heart rate
These symptoms can vary from person to person and may have causes other than low thyroid. Hypothyroidism develops gradually over time, so it's possible not to notice symptoms for months or even years.
Testing and treatment of hypothyroidism
Some symptoms of hypothyroidism --- weight change or fatigue—can be subtle. Blood tests can confirm whether thyroid hormone levels are too low. If you're experiencing symptoms, it's important to ask your healthcare provider to see if you should be tested. Left untreated, hypothyroidism increases the risks of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
A complete thyroid panel includes the following tests:
· Triiodothyronine (T3)
· Triiodothyronine (T3), Free
· Thyroxine (T4)
· T4 Free (Direct)
· Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) Ab
· Thyroglobulin Antibody
· Reverse T3, Serum
The standard treatment for an underactive thyroid is a medication that replaces the hormones your thyroid can no longer make. Once you and your doctor find the right dose, many symptoms may improve dramatically.
Autoimmune conditions (Hashimoto's and celiac disease)
Some autoimmune diseases can exist for years without many obvious symptoms. Then, the symptoms may appear once the body becomes over-stressed, e.g., after a pregnancy or illness. These can include Hashimoto's and celiac disease.
If you have been diagnosed with celiac disease, be sure to stick to your gluten-free diet. Some people have reported needing lower amounts of thyroid hormone medications after a period of time on a gluten-free diet. One reason is that with the gluten-free diet, the intestines are healing, and they may be better able to absorb the medication. Another reason may be that the gluten-free diet reduces the levels of inflammation in the body, including inflammation of the thyroid gland, so they need less medication.
Thyroid and weight
The thyroid helps control metabolism, so it can directly impact your weight. With hypothyroidism, the body isn't metabolizing (using energy) as well as it could be. This means that more of the foods and drinks we consume aren't metabolized ("used" or "burned"). This can lead to some weight gain.
Weight gain is just one of many symptoms of hypothyroidism. Many things can cause weight gain, and therefore, it may not result from hypothyroidism. If weight gain is the only symptom of hypothyroidism, it's less likely to be from hypothyroidism. Other factors can affect your metabolism (and weight), including other hormones, food intake, physical activity, toxins, and stress. Iodine, the essential mineral for thyroid hormones Thyroid hormones contain the mineral iodine. This means that the thyroid needs iodine to make its hormones. Iodine deficiency is uncommon in the United States but occurs in other areas of the world.
The recommendation for adults is 150 mcg of iodine per day. Pregnant and breastfeeding women need 220 - 290 mcg per day. The American Thyroid Association recommends that women planning pregnancy, pregnant, or breastfeeding take a multivitamin containing 150 mcg iodine per day (the rest of the daily iodine can come from food and beverages).
Iodine is found in seawater and some soils. Food sources of iodine are iodized salt, fish, shellfish, dairy, eggs, and soy products. Sea vegetables (kelp, dulse) is one food that may have high amounts of iodine.
It's possible—especially with autoimmune thyroid disorders—to be sensitive to side effects from too much iodine. Some supplements and medications (like some cough syrups) contain high iodine levels. Too much iodine may worsen hypothyroid symptoms and increase the risk of developing an overactive thyroid. Be sure to check your product labels or ask your healthcare provider.
Soy and cruciferous vegetables (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts) contain compounds known as "goitrogens." These can interfere with the thyroid's ability to take in dietary iodine. Consuming large amounts of these is not a concern for people who have sufficient iodine levels.
Selenium is a necessary micronutrient to support the synthesis and function of your thyroid hormones. In fact, the concentration of selenium in your thyroid is higher than any other organ in the body. Insufficient selenium levels in the body can lead to Hashimoto’s disease. Food sources include brazil nuts, fish, meat, chicken and lentils. Eating 2 brazil nuts/day is enough to meet your selenium requirements, as well as giving you a dose of healthy fats and other antioxidants.
Nutrition tips when taking thyroid medications
There are special dietary considerations if you're taking thyroid medications.
Be sure to follow the instructions for taking your medications. This may mean taking it with water on an empty stomach to avoid potential interactions. After taking it, you might need to wait several hours before taking any supplements or other medications containing iron, calcium, or magnesium. It's also a good idea to steer clear of high-fiber foods, soy, and walnuts for those few hours, as they may reduce how much your body absorbs.
If you take thyroid medication, avoid consuming grapefruit or its juice, as these may interact. This effect may last more than several hours, so if you love grapefruit, talk to your doctor or pharmacist to see if your medication needs to be adjusted.
Food is Medicine
Eating a healthy diet for your thyroid can help you feel better. The following foods and nutrients support your metabolism, digestive system, heart, and brain.
A thyroid-healthy diet includes:
· Fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds (these contain essential vitamins and minerals and are also sources of dietary fiber for digestive health since there is a gut-thyroid connection)
· Lean protein such as eggs, poultry, fish, lean meats, legumes, and fish and shellfish (with their omega-3s for heart and brain health)
· Whole grains (avoid gluten-containing grains if you have celiac disease)
· Healthy oils like olive, avocado, and walnut oil
Cut down on ultra-processed foods, especially those containing hydrogenated oils and excess sodium and sugar. Avoid soft drinks, potato chips, candy, etc., that are high in calories and low in nutrients.
For thyroid health, nutrition is important. Knowing what to eat when your metabolism is slow can help you feel better and reduce your symptoms. It's also important to know what foods and drinks to avoid in the few hours before and after taking your medications.
If you feel that you have symptoms that may be related to thyroid issues, speak with your healthcare provider. They will review your history and symptoms, and help you decide if you need testing or treatment.
Interested in personalized nutrition support for your thyroid? Book an appointment with Kathie Swift by clicking here. Stay tuned for the future release of the PhenomX Health Personalized Nutrition digital platform to augment your personalized nutrition goals for healthy aging. Sign up at the bottom of our page here so you are the first to know!
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